1 MAR 2022

Norman Castles

From motte and bailey to concentric circles

This episode Anton takes the lead as he explores the development of Norman castles in the British Isles. Whilst fortifications dotted the English landscape long before the 1066 Norman invasion nothing quite like their castles existed before. Anton and I talk about early motte and bailey fortifications that offered only rudimentary protection to vast concentric circle castles like Beaumaris in Wales that dominated the surrounding landscape. What did they symbolise? How did they change? And are they the origin of IKEA?!

Anton Investigates

A castle is a fortified building made from different materials throughout history.

 They were constructed for defence in captured lands but also projected power, wealth and fear.

In 1066 William Duke of Normandy, more commonly known as William the conqueror, invaded England to claim the crown.

Edward the Confessor (dying king) had told William he was the rightful heir however on his deathbed he changed his mind and promised it to Harold Godwinson.

With this invasion the Normans brought castles to England.

In fact William even arrived with a flatpack castle!

There is a scene in the Bayeux Tapestry showing a group of men, some digging and making the motte and others putting together the castle.

They took counsel together, and looked for a good spot to build a castle on. They had brought with them in the fleet, three pre-built wooden castles from Normandy, all in pieces, ready for fitting together, and they took the materials of one of these out of the ships, all shaped and pierced to receive the pins which they had brought cut and ready in large barrels; and before evening had set in they had finished a good Castle on English ground, and placed their stores there. All then ate and drank, and were glad to be ashore

Norman chronicles

Motte and bailey castle

This type of castle was called a motte and bailey.

This was the first castle introduced by the Normans, they were easy to build and could be finished in only 8 days!

So what happened next?

They were developed into the stone keep castle which were already being built in Europe. They were an upgrade to the motte and bailey which whilst quick to build weren't suitable for the Norman's permanent conquest.

Stone keep castles were much stronger because they introduced thicker, taller stone walls which had arrow slits giving a protected place to shoot from, for the defenders.

The walls often had towers running along them which developed from square to rounded towers as siege tactics changed.

Square towers were vulnerable to undermining as their corners would collapse however rounded towers were stronger and more difficult to attack due to their shape.

Harlech Castle

Harlech Castle was Built by Edward 1 of England, nicknamed Edward Longshanks because of his height, in north Wales during 1283.

This is an example of a stone keep castle. The keep in Harlech castle is built into the outer wall so was vulnerable, however this problem was fixed in the later, concentric castles

What are concentric castles?

Concentric castles are like the mega fortresses!

Instead of having one surrounding wall they have multiple walls.

This made them much harder to attack as each layer was well defended and if you got through one wall you'd then be faced a bigger one

Beaumaris Castle was also built in Wales by Edward but it was so expensive to make he nearly bankrupt country!

Find out more


This transcript is automatically generated so may contain errors.

Welcome to.

The curiosity of.


Episode 37.

I think yeah, I think so. I'm going to be the lead of this episode hopefully and we are doing castles and how they've sort of evolved and developed. So this is actually for my school. It's a little bit of homework.

It's yes on Norman castles and different types. And yeah, their development and why and how they changed.

Yep, so let's get in to the episode.

OK, So what is a castle?

I my sort of definition of it is.

A fortified building made from different materials and changed in structure throughout history, so it's it never really stayed the same. It constantly changing. Like I said earlier.

Why would that be?

If it needed more, well, that's pretty much this entire episode, so.

OK, right, yeah, you're gonna tell us.

Are you OK?

They were usually constructed for defence and captured lands, but also projected power, wealth and fear into like commoners.

Or the peasants?

Yeah, so you're saying either captured lands or if you rule the country already, it's to help keep your control.

Yeah, exactly so in 1066 William Duke of Normandy, more commonly known as William the Conqueror, invaded England to claim the crown.

Edward the Confessor, who was the dying King, Uhm told William he was the rightful heir. However, on his deathbed he changed his mind and promised it to Harold Godwinson. So Harold he was in the Battle of Hastings. He was like the man who led the army.

Yeah, he was the defending well king at the time.

With this invasion, the Normans brought castles to England quite literally.

Because in fact William arrived with a flat packed Castle.

On his ships.

Yes, that's interesting means the Normans that comes from Northmen or Norsemen to the Vikings, and you know how Sweden and IKEA is famous for flatpack furniture.

So this is where it all began then, so that's that kind of Scandinavian link going down to William the Conqueror.

Exactly, it just has to be.

So there's a scene in the bio tapestry showing a group of men some digging and making the motte, which I'll explain later, and others putting together the actual castle.

OK, so they brought this class on their boats.

Did they, yeah?

Yep, so I got a quote here.

They took counsel together and looked for a good spot to build a castle on.

They had brought with them in the fleet three large pre built wooden castles from Normandy, all in pieces ready for fitting together and they took the materials of one of these out of the ships all shaped and pierced to receive the pins which they had brought, cut and ready in large barrels and before.

Evening had set in, they had finished a good castle on English ground and placed their stores there.

All then ate and drank and were glad to be ashore.

That's amazing, actually. Isn't it bringing over the cast when constructing it so quickly?

That was a wooden parcel as well, so we've got a picture here which I just explained.

Pretty much with that quote, so there's some people digging.

And others making the actual castle and making their mound or the motte so.

Yes, it's it's a scene from the actual tapestry, isn't it? Shows how important that was that was part of the invasion plan and how much they did plan as well.

So that will be in.

The show notes will it OK?

Yes I will.

See, I know my stuff now.

You see?

So this type of castle was called a motte and Bailey. It was the first castle introduced by the Normans and they were easy to build and can be finished in only eight days or as we saw that flatpack one not even a a day, but that's with everything pre produced. I've got a nice diagram.

For Martin Bailey here.

And Mott means mound, UM, or I imagine it like that. So M from what? An M for Mt or before Bailey or before below.

I don't think there any way to explain that kind of or you just get it in your head. So a motte and Bailey castle was in two parts.

Never say remember, is it?

The Mott was demand, like I've said, that's the higher the higher up piece. It's like a a hill and has a keep or a tower or car. Little castle.

Which was made of wood on top and surrounding that castle at the top of the hill.

Was a wooden palisade, so if they were attacked they could retreat up the hill so it's much easier to defend like that because you got the height advantage.

And the lower part is the Bailey and this has.

Almost like a miniature village, this is where maybe some soldiers would stay, or some farmers so they could self sustain themselves if under siege because quite a common tactic for sieges was to just starve the inside. The people inside the castles.

So maybe you'd have. You'd definitely have a well otherwise Stuart not have any water up some farm lands, some stables.

And surrounding that Bailey or that little village was another great big palisade.

Yes, our policy is a wall.

Isn't it?

Yeah, it's like a protective wall.

Then you'd have a main gate or gatehouse.

With a drawbridge outside of that and all the way around you would have.

A Moat or or just a ditch.

And what were they typically made of?

They were primarily primarily made of wood.

Because that was really easy to get and it was not too expensive, but well, much lighter than stone.

Yeah, actually there's a history of this type of.

Fortification because you would hear stories of the Romans when they're on campaign, they would build probably fairly similar structure, but without the mocks I don't think they didn't have that mound.

That is, I think, didn't they often make the mounds themselves the the dormant it?

Was a man made hill?

Yeah, it was my made up hill.


So I guess I would use the.

Earth that they dug from the Moat or the ditch to make them not. It's a bit confusing. Mot mots.

Yeah, yeah.

And again, why do you think they would be useful if you are, say, the Normans invade invading England?

How old is?

This help well, you've got quick defence. So if there was like a counter attack by the English you would be able to defend yourself quite well and.

You feel like you got a bit more power like that, but not as much as it doesn't project as much power as some other costs which will report later.

Ha ha.

Yeah, I guess it would be a place where you could keep your stores as well so that prefabricated castle that they built when they've then come ashore. They've been able to build that and they've got a nice safe place.

To keep all their food and their horses and their equipment and things haven't made then if they start building a network of these out all over the place, they're making little bastions that they can hide them. And yeah, attack from or whatever they're going to do.

This isn't the only type of cars they built is.

It I mean, what do they do after that?

They started building stained ones, yeah.

I'll get into the stone castles in a second, but first we're going to say why would and Martin Baileys weren't quite as good as some stone ones.


They just weren't suitable really, like they wouldn't last forever, and obviously they wouldn't, so they would rot easier. They couldn't survive us well against the elements compared to stone.

And they're not as imposing as like a big giant castle made of stone, or where people would be looking down at you more instead of just trying to stick their head over a palisade.

Yeah, and what sort of weapon would people be using against a castle like a modern Bailey one?

Uhm, fire definitely fire because obviously would but.

Uhm, so it's quite easy to see each other.

Woods is probably easier to knock down than stone.

Yeah, if you can drop chop down a tree with the Max, you can probably chop down a palisade. OK, So what do they do next and how did they improve upon these early motte and Bailey castles?

So they soon developed into stone keep castles which were already being built in Europe so they weren't particularly new, they're just new in England, and I think you'll go over some pre Norman castles later. From the Anglo Saxons.

OK, yeah.

I did do a little bit of research, yeah?

Yeah, I know.


They were like an upgrade to the Martin Bailey which whilst quick to build, weren't suitable for the Norman permanent conquest stone keep castles is much stronger and they introduce thicker taller stone walls which had arrow slits giving a protective place to shoot from.

For the defending side.

OK yeah, and when you pitch a typical car so you imagine soldiers walking along the top of the wall in all sorts in the battlements.

That helps with thicker walls as well. Yeah, battlements like there, if you imagine the top of a.

Car so you have the almost studs coming out and that would be if you're shooting you would hide behind those if you're reloading an arrow or something, and then you'd turn out so you got a bit more cover.

Their walls often had towers running along them, which developed from square to rounded towers as siege tactics changed.

OK, so why would that be?

Uhm, so if you were trying to put a ladder up to climb up the walls, it's harder to balance like on a round.

Yeah, compared to a flat surface and if you have arrow slits, maybe you could.

Slip your arm through and push the ladder down or something easier. I'm not sure.

Go on.

And undermining.

What's undermining?

Undermining is like where you dig a tunnel, a very cramped dark tunnel underneath the towers or walls to try to get the bulls to collapse.

So people above you find it easier to get through.

OK, this is the attackers trying to tunnel underneath the walls. There's almost the opposite.

Prison scape

Uhm, so square towers were vulnerable to undermining as I've said and their corners would collapse much easier.

So that's like a weak point in the design then.

Exactly, so that's why I use rounded towers which don't have any corners, and we're much stronger and more difficult to attack because of their shape.

Yeah, actually I took out into the garden and I gave you a spades and I.

So we're in the garden now, but Anton has, well, what do you have?

I have a shovel.

And what you're going to do with that?

Yeah, you're going to try undermining aren't you? You're going to undermine the house to see you can experience. Maybe what it be like.

Whilst on doing that well actually as undermining.

Undermining would be where the attackers of a castle they would try and dig down under the walls so to try and make it collapse and.

What they also often do is like a fire down there.

But could you imagine being in a dark tunnel? Kind of that you just dug a very crude one as well.

No, especially when there's probably.

People coming up behind you or doing a counter tunnel or something and and there's literally a siege going on just above you.

Yeah, so you're probably hungry. You haven't eaten very well. You've been sleeping in a tent. Maybe the seizures been going on for months.

So it's that difficult.

Yeah, yeah.

And then you see that big pile of rocks.

Over there.

Yeah, so those are then being pelted at you. OK, so there's people up. Imagine somebody off in your.

Bedroom window throwing those rocks.

That wouldn't be very pleasant.

Now and then, when you've made your tunnel under the castle, probably really small and damp, and your.

Carrying a maybe a weapon in there with you.

And then you come across another tunnel from the defenders and what they're going to.

Try and do to you.

Kill you.

Yeah, so they could be eating as well. I'm going to have a fight in the dark under the car.

So then, even if the Carter will start coming down and you're in that tunnel, what's gonna happen to you?

You get scratch.

Yeah, so not particularly nice experience is that so how's your autonomy coming along?

Uhm, say fire down a couple of centimetres.

Do you think you're going to manage to undermine the house?

Are you going to keep going?

No, because we're actually planning to do Vale Castle after this. This is your practise.

Oh, OK.

I'll see you in a couple of years.

OK, Harlech Castle was built by Edward, the first of England, who was a Norman as well. He was like came down from the line of William.

Uh, so Edwards was nicknamed Edward Longshanks because of his height, which I quite like.

Uhm, and they built Harlech Castle in North Wales during 1283 where England were Turner raid Wales.

OK, So what sort of castle is Harlech Castle?

It's a good example of a stonekeep castle. Alright, I've got a diagram here of Harlech Castle.


It has a square sort of shape, outer walls and on each corner it's got the rounded towers which we talked about earlier and has.

Arrow slits for easier defence and it looks like it's built sort of on a hill so it's a little bit.

Harder to attack I I imagine.

Lots of castles still would have had moats or ditches and maybe smaller outer walls, but that was more in the next castle that we'll talk about in a minute.


It still had a Bailey or now called award, which was like a courtyard.

Yeah, so that's like the space kind of.

Inside the walls then.

Exactly, Yep.

Uh, you'd still have your drawbridge so.

If you had a motor by his and and you'd have your gatehouses.

Uhm, but.

The keeps.

Were still being built onto like one side of the walls, so quite vulnerable, maybe from undermining or just an easier siege into that keep.

OK, So what you're saying is, well, she got this wall. It wasn't always surrounding a keep in the middle. They keep might actually be built into that. That perimeter curtain wall. Yeah, So what?

What sort of problems could that course then like?

You were saying, like I said, undermining, but you could maybe fix that a little bit with the rounded walls again.

Or if you had some sort of weapon which could fire over the top a bit easier, it can land onto the keep, which is like if he leaves to keep you've lost the.

Castle, yes it works. All weapons then would that be?

And the treble shoes.

Treasu if you can't say it trap daucher Yep.

Trouble, Shay?

Yeah, So what you're saying is then that yeah, if somebody sees in this castle and they've got their weapons, their seeds, towers and their Trevor shows and their catapults, something they it's fairly easy for them to directly attack the keep.

Huh, but

In castles like I, I'm not sure if it was Harlech Castle UM or if it was one of the Scottish castles.

I can't remember now, but actually it was a Scottish castle, but you would have maybe 60 men, 30 men defending it against iron out, thousands of men and would be so much easier to defend.

Are from a castle and height higher positions and you could take out with 30 men. You could take out a 1000 men for example.

Oh yeah, maybe not. Take them and kill with them. I think you mean.

Uhm, yeah you can hold them back so OK, so if you're the Normans then coming into England which was a foreign land or an invasive force really.

Hold yeah.

OK, this is a few 100 years later by those they've got more control, but what effects are you saying that these strongest stained castles would have had is saying that a small number of people could do what?

Defend much easier compared to a wooden thing which could even be just shoved over. Uhm, compared to stone, which you would actually have to try to get through with more advanced tactics.

Yeah, they're not just defending though, either they are.

They're controlling that land and the car.

OK yeah, So what do you think the local population might think of these castles?

They would probably be quite.

Say feel quite safe and they would definitely be fond of them. They would like them, uh, because they.

Do you think so at first? If I'm a Norman?

Mabel, who's come in and.

Oh they would. They would might feel some safety from them. They probably didn't affect their day-to-day life that much.

Uhm, but maybe they would have to build them themselves like before. Still after just being captured, it just doesn't sound very fair to me.

Are you trying to say that maybe for the normal like the peasantry?

Maybe they had less of an effect on them as if you were one of the Lords or something there and you've been displaced by the Normans, you're probably gonna be more than effect to them than to the.

Exactly, yeah, if it was, if you, it seems like if you had a bit more power your your your role would change more dramatically compared to just some peasants or paupers.

The peasants link.


Uhm, anyway like I was saying the keep was built into the walls. However this problem was fixed in later concentric castles.

OK, So what are concentric castles?

Concentric castles are pretty much the mega fortresses of castles, uhm?

Instead of having one surrounding wool, they had multiple wolves.

I know.

This made them much harder to attack, as each layer was well defended and probably the walls were thicker even than the UM stonekeep castle walls.

How thick could these rules get? What sort of size are?

We talking could be 6 metres thick. I know that's like tickles me. Well, more than two of me lying down.

I guess that yeah.

I presume they weren't always solid either. I imagine someone would have rooms and things and.

Maybe maybe oh to get to your arrowslits as well.

Yeah, yeah, and there's like an armoury or something is there.

Yeah, I imagine so because you can't fit everything in your Bailey.

Or your ward.

And I presume.

Though it would be quite tall as well.

Yep, I would say they could be 10 metres tall. Some of the taller ones may be taller than that.

Yes, that's all our building work. So OK, so tell me more about these walls in the concentric.

Also then.

Yeah, so if you got through one wall, which you probably wouldn't, you would be faced with the tool or bigger thicker 1.


And because if you had a smaller wall at the front, you could fire over it with the tool behind. So you had exactly. Yeah, you had multiple.

Even the defenders could fire over.

Sets of Archers firing lots of arrow rain.

Uhm, but a nice example of this was also built by Edward. It's called Beau Marie. I probably butchered the name completely.

I do that every other side.

Which was also built in Wales, but it was so expensive Edward nearly bankrupt England.

Well, I I don't think it's just this castle there was that he was on.

A bit of a castle building spree.

Yeah, he he was a little bit addicted to castles and I think he just enjoyed seeing the power. I work spend a little bit about how it signified wealth in a minute, but I'm just going to explain bonari.


It had the inner Bailey, so the inner ward or courtyard, which once again still had some buildings may be self sustaining. The castle then outside of that outside of the first awards.

You'd have sort of an outer courtyard which would run around the middle of the 1st and 2nd walls.

Uhm, and you would still have your keep built onto.

The fast wall.

Which was like built into it, but the 2nd wall protected that a bit.

Better this time. Yeah, it's going to vary on what cars it is as well.

Someone might have more of a stand alone. Keep in the middle or some would be built into one of the curtain rules, but then yeah, you're saying that outside that there's yet another woman, or maybe even a really big cars. There might even be a third, or doesn't think yeah.

Exactly, but this is one of the biggest castles.

And like most castles, I imagine it would have had a great big ditch or Moat running around the outside.

Then there would be the first curtain wall, which is just a wall really running around and on each corner again you would have rounded towers and around the gatehouse or the drawbridge.

You would have a couple of towers for protection if someone is trying to.

Get through that drawbridge. You could have people shooting them from the side if you had arrow States and those towers sticking out and also about.

Midway this this is just from the Bo Murray Castle that I'm lucky at the moment you had some drum towers which were basically.

Half a tower stuck onto the wall.


And and then you would go into.

The outer Bailey, which I've explained which was the gap between the 1st and 2nd wood.

Then you would go into a smaller but taller like yeah, smaller, but too long, probably thicker.

Uhm, so between the walls and there be quite an enclosed space then maybe so if you are stuck in the middle of that everybody is gonna be really high up around you. If you're trying to attack and you've got a breach, that first of all.

You would be probably get stones thrown at you.

It would be.

Quite nasty. I mean I'm trying to decide would I rather be in that outer Bailey or undermining?

'cause he got.

A tiny bit of safety from undermining because maybe there's some something above you which might protect your head a little bit, but I'm not sure.

And then you would have.

More towers, in fact there there's almost too many towers on this and.

And then the inner Bailey and a great big keep.

What's special about a castle then, compared to something like just a Fort, is there?

Difference castles were like the grand homes of Lords who might have needed a bit more protection just in case someone was plotting to kill them to get married or something. I didn't come.


But they were pretty much just fancy houses at this point that you would use them to defend yourself, but often they just signified wealth and their B.

Venues of great feasts and and you would like radiate lots of power if he lived in.

The castle. OK, so if you think walking up to Castle Cornet

The walls are massive, aren't they? Say if I'm.

I know somebody less important than you and I'm going to visit you. I've been invited to your car, So what effect is that going to have on me?

You're you're probably going to be like, why, how, how can you afford this. 'cause most people just live in a sort of one room mud Hut with a fireplace isn't there, right? Yeah.

Yeah, well, even even if I maybe.

I'm a I'm a chief or something.

Somewhere and oh thank you yeah.

Then you'd have two rooms anymore tasks.

But compared to your car, so which I've seen just maybe taking a couple of years to build with this label and everything there.

I think you you would be very like.

Stunned and awestruck maybe?

Yeah, or struggle. That's really the right word, particularly like you were saying there wasn't really much may of these type of Norman castles in England before the invasion.

Say it's a real change of the landscape, isn't it? So what sort places would they build them in then?

They would build them.

In a place where it's a bit easier to get resources or.

So maybe overlooking a village. Just show your power or your wealth. Which is what castles eventually just developed into. Because gunpowder then meant castles weren't used as much for like defence.

OK, yeah, so you can and would be sort of end of.

The age of castles.

Exactly, so they were just more to look a bit fancy and show wealth, but.

Castles as well were built on places of power in in the past, so some Roman forts come to show like, oh, we're taking this now. We're taking it better than they did almost so to show your.

Significance, do you think that's also maybe reaching back into history? Yeah, we're here now. We've replaced them.

I mean, that's probably helped some.

Historians, now they've got a double whammy on that one. They've found the castle and they've also found a room for.

Well, as long as they didn't destroy it when they're building everyone, yeah, you'd actually quite often find the castles.

Oh yeah.

They might use parts of an old Roman fortification or an Anglo-Saxon one, and they were build upon those rules because.

You've got to think that originally.

That place would have been chosen because of its defensive importance. It might be a trick point where maybe between some big hills or something, and this is the easiest way to run your army through. So you want to control that, don't you?

Yeah, you want to use bottleneck tactics, so that's like when you.

Go into, uh, SNB. It's the only way through so you can block that off. Then you've they can't get through. You controlled that bit.

Well, I was like what you'd have in the castle design, particularly concentric ones where you are going to try and funnel the attackers down a certain route where you're then able to fire at them, or chalk stains at them off the walls.

Brussels would also be built one.

Like natural Hills instead of Mott heal Hills, which are the man made once so it's easier for the defenders.

'cause running up a hill that's.

Hard quickly if you've got some Harbour Island carrying a sword and it's muddy.

I've got, I've got a friend. He's very good at running, but he says.

He never wants to run up.

A hill he just was like ah, why?

How many castles were built then? Whether they're just like I made 10 or what?

Quite a lot, I'm not. I'm not sure an exact number, but it's probably over 1000 at least.

Yes, that's a lot.

All built in very like powerful places and you would quite often see them.

Built along the coasts.

I will be rich the 1st.

Nice, I've died now and my brother John. He's taken the throne.

And are all of his neighbours happy with him?

So what problems are going to happen from all these castles then at war? Are they good? Can he control the country through his castles or?

Maybe his nobles controls some of those castles, so that wouldn't be great weather if if it's you want to get your country, it's going to be harder attacking a castle compared to just attacking a couple of men just standing in a field.

OK yeah, so this big castle buildings Bri, that's happened. Yeah all over the country too. At first it was used to.

Uhm, control and take over the country. And now let's.

Well, we'll go into the Scotland bit in a minute.

If you've lost your castle, it's a lot lot, lot, lot, lot harder to get back. So if when England invaded Scotland they got really far, they even got to the final castle.

If they took that castle, they would have Scotland. They were very very close to taking it up, but didn't quite get.

And eventually Scotland pushed them back when they took back the castles. So if they thought, Oh no, we've lost this castle again.

It's going to be a lot harder to get it back. We're going to sacrifice a lot of men to get it back. It would just be easier to tear down their castles.

OK, yeah, so they.

Got rid of.

Them exactly, and maybe if you're a king and you upset some of your neighbours and they've all got their castles and they band together against you. Yeah, it's really hard for you to wrestle back control, isn't it?

Particularly like you said, you could have what 3050 men or something they can hold off a sieging army.

That's why Castle was eventually just evolved into.

Paris is and just signs of wealth and money, especially with the feats that they held there at all. There were lots of special exotic foods that they brought over that a common I would not be able to afford like a pineapple.

Actually the the pineapples got an amazing history of.

Well, we should do that.

I I know a book about pineapples, so is there anything else you want to tell me about? Forts and castles or not?

Actually, maybe we should sum it up a little bit, but we've sort of covered how how castles have evolved from.

Yeah, yeah.

Uh Mott and Bailey, a quick fought or defensive position that you could quickly put up to get quick power. Let's just quick, quick, quick.

Yeah, I think.

What's important we are saying there is maybe particularly the Norman invasion. That's very much a defensive position, allows you to have a bit of safety because you are the invader.

Instead of sleeping in tents, he's sleeping a Bailey, which is much nicer.

And and then.

It goes onto the stone keeps which were.

A heavier, protected, more fortified building which were a bit more permanent and they showed power.

Would you say that's not so much about defence? It's more about control now.

More control, Yep.

I mean a little bit about the fence, then you go into your concentric, which is mega Fortresses, which probably weren't necessary but were cool to look at and they were signs of wealth and power, and eventually it would go into castles which were.

Only made for wealth only. Made for power and eventually Castles died away as.

Gunpowder and cannons came in which destroyed the walls much easier.

Yeah, and if you've built this great Big Castle, you're saying we're here to stay this island.

Exactly, just like that.

And also castles. They would give a little bit of housing. Like we said, it's houses for Lords, but maybe there could be housing houses built around so it's easier for like the lead Masons who.

Were the project managers come to get to the castle in the morning, so of walking all the way from the other side of town for example.

And it would also give jobs, so there would be loads and loads of carpenters and Carters. Even lots of people.

And the people having to feed them and play with them and those sorts? Yeah, so you would actually get an economy building up around the car, so he's something might have been just built in a defensive position, but over time you would start to get a village or a town built around them.

Making puzzles.

I think it's important as well that people realise that the cars they weren't just military where they they were.

Also, the people homes and the king or the laws might be living there. So what would it feel like if you are going to visit the king?

Yep, king. Obviously being a person of high power and it, let's say.

I'm just a peasant at the moment and I'm walking through the gates gradually going up and up past the portcullis and up some steps to the throne room of the keep and you just keep going higher and higher up. It's like you're walking up the ranks of your possessions from peasant to slightly less.

Peasantry peasant too.

A chief to like a noble. And finally the kings. He was always higher than you. He's got a better position than you.

It's like a hierarchy almost isn't actually built into the architecture.

But if anything signifies wealth, it's that yeah, so.

You're going to be talking about like pre Norman.

Uhm, invasion like forts and defences, aren't you so?

You're all sort of thinking like, oh, people might think that before the Normans.

Now it's just nothing. There was no defence. Do you have anything to build on that?

Uhm yeah, because.

What you said there is the Normans came over and they brought castles and then you think surely there must be something before that.

And I already mentioned Raymond Forts very briefly earlier, and how they would come. They could build them, or when the Romans were on camp they were build something like a modern Bailey. Or maybe just the Bailey.

Alfred the great. He actually set up a network of what were called Boris on the country and these were to help defend against the Viking invasions and where Abora which you find still in place.

Name stay like Middlesbrough where they differ from a castle is they were a much kind of larger scale structure and the castle once they look big.

And they are big and imposing, and they are.

Basically, the Carter was just it isn't. It might have some buildings inside it. There's not so many. But then Abora would be more like a fortified village.

Yeah, I've heard of that.

Or town, so you might have a Fort built there, but then there'd also includes the entire town in wolves, warm Palisades, and the idea was every I think it was 20 miles or 32 kilometres.

There should be a borrow somewhere so no village in England should be further away from that. So if the Vikings.

Attack and the local people could then go and hide behind these walls, so there was a history already of building.

Fortifications earning them but not.

The castles which the Normans are famous for, so I hope you can see the difference between particularly I think if you're coming in as a force and you realise you can control a large area with a small number of member the castle.

Exactly, I imagine a course was like on an armoured towel. Imagine a little bit like that, and then the borrowers like an armoured village, a big wall around the village instead of just around the tower.

I'm not sure if that's

How to explain it or not?

And probably not quite as well defended either as a castle which is so concentrated in what it's doing, it's the real essence.

It's meant for that.

I think that is pretty much it. I mean, I'll just touch.

On the Normans invaded England and Guernsey were part of Normandy, so we won.

We did, yeah.

Let's see.

Actually, if you look at our flag, there's the Gold Cross on the Red Cross that William the Conqueror's cross probably got a proper name, which I don't know.

I think we should just do our our out tray then.

Yeah, so you.

Happy with that. Yeah, that was longer than expected.

Yeah, well done.

Hopefully I.

A good mark on my thing.

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Then you'd have two rooms anymore tasks.

Oh, thank you.